Exemplary Youth Nurtured by the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ : Zayd ibn Thabit

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The Emergence of a Remarkably Sharp Mind

In the fourth year of our Prophet’s mission, as he openly and collectively invited people to Islam, a challenging period unfolded. The polytheists in Mecca, unable to accept this shift, exerted pressure on Muslims and subjected them to torture in an attempt to force them back to polytheism. Meanwhile, in the rocky and palm-laden surroundings of Yathrib, a remarkable individual with keen intelligence1 and a strong memory emerged—Zayd ibn Thabit!

Zayd ibn Thabit’s parents, Thabit ibn ad-Dahhak and Nawwar bint Malik, were part of the Banu Najjar branch of Hazraj. The arrival of Zayd brought joy to the household, but the happiness was short-lived. Zayd lost his father at the age of six in the Battle of Buath.2 This prolonged conflict between the Aws and Hazraj, spanning a hundred and twenty years, left Zayd orphaned. Meanwhile, during this period, our Prophet was contending with the economic blockade imposed on him and his relatives in Mecca.

Zayd ibn Thabit met the respected Mus’ab when he was nine years old

The loss of fathers and elders in the Battle of Buath prompted the youth of Aws and Hazraj to embark on a quest. They did not want a new war and were concerned about the threats from the Jewish tribes because they had become weak. Concurrently, our Prophet persistently pursued his strategy of inviting tribes to Islam during fairs and pilgrimages, a mission he had initiated in the year of Zayd ibn Thabit’s birth. Despite initial negative responses over seven years, he eventually reaped the rewards of his efforts. In the eleventh year, he successfully won the hearts of six Hazraj youth during a gathering in Aqaba. In the twelfth year, our Prophet met with twelve young people from Aws and Hazraj in the same place, and he entrusted the respected Mus’ab to go to Medina with them. Mus’ab’s mission was to explain Islam, study the Qur’an, and teach the Sunnah.

The choice of the respected Mus’ab was a conscious choice, because the majority of the people of Medina were young. And our Prophet sent the respected Mus’ab, who was young like them, self-sacrificing, intelligent, had a high level of representation, stood out with his knowledge of the Qur’an and scientific personality, and had the portrait of an ideal educator in every respect, as their addressee. Thus, he would be the star of the youth of Medina in the sky and they would aim to be like the respected Mus’ab. And through him, Islam would be included in Medina through knowledge. Our Prophet expresses this:

            “No city or country was conquered easily. However, Medina was easily conquered through the Qur’an!”

Eventually, it unfolded as follows: in a short span, the esteemed Mus’ab effectively preached Islam to every household in Medina, capturing the hearts of numerous individuals, predominantly the youth. Among them were Muadh ibn Jabal, an eighteen-year-old, and Zayd ibn Thabit, now nine years old. In the subsequent years, both emerged as notable figures in Qur’anic knowledge and Fiqh (the Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence). Their exemplary teacher, the respected Mus’ab, played a pivotal role in shaping their understanding and commitment.

The respected Zayd ibn Thabit had listened to and memorized seventeen chapters from the mouth of the respected Mus’ab in a short time.4

Presented to Our Prophet on the First Day of the Hijra

When our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, migrated to Medina, the respected Zayd ibn Thabit was eleven years old 5 and was one of those who welcomed him with excitement. It was brought and presented to him and it was said that he knew seventeen surahs by heart.6 Our Prophet asked him to read the Qur’an; the respected Zayd read the chapter Qaf, and he, peace and blessings be upon him, was very pleased and happy.7 When the Messenger of God settled in the house of the respected Abu Ayyub, the first person who offered him the meal was the respected Zayd ibn Thabit. His mother, Nawwar, sent a bowl of tirid (brewis) made with bread, butter, and milk to the Messenger of God. The respected Zayd presented it by saying: “My mother sent this bowl!”, and The Messenger of God prayed to him by saying: “May God make your life fruitful!” 8 It was the Sunnah of the Messenger of God, when he met young people, to pray for them to grow up to be qualified and good people.

Their house was very close to the Masjid an-Nabawi. The respected Bilal had been reciting the call to prayer by climbing up to their house for a long time. 9 The respected Zayd, who made good use of this closeness and neighborliness, often went to our Prophet to learn the Qur’an and Sunnah.10

Zayd Ibn Thabit Is Learning To Read and Write

Our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), promised the literate prisoners of Badr, who did not have the means to pay a ransom, that they would be released in exchange for teaching ten young people from Medina to read and write. During this period, one of the young people who was taught by the “polytheist captives” with his instruction was Zayd ibn Thabit.11

The respected Zayd, who learned to read and write in a short time, also made great efforts to write the Qur’an. Our Prophet, who was aware of his efforts, gave him the duty of revelation clerk despite his young age.12 The respected Zayd, who improved his style greatly, would write both letters to be sent to the heads of state and many edicts, treaties, and documents regarding state affairs in the following years. 13

Now the respected Zayd was closer to the Messenger of God.14 His job as a clerk opened the way for Zayd to be with him in many historical moments and events. In fact, keeping talented young people close was one of the educational methods of the Messenger of God. Thus elevating them to an enviable position; it stimulated their love of science and research.15

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Zayd Ibn Thabit Is Learning Other Languages

Aware of the superior intelligence, memory, and calculation ability of the respected Zayd ibn Thabit, our Prophet asked the fourteen-year-old the respected Zayd to learn first Hebrew and then Syriac, as the letters from heads of state and tribal chiefs increased and bilateral relations began to develop. 16 Until that day, the Jews in Medina were used in these matters. This was a problematic situation that brought about their acquaintance with state correspondences and documents. As a matter of fact, the fact that they attempted to rebel when they had the opportunity showed that they could not be trusted very much. 17

Thereupon, the respected Zayd ibn Thabit learned to write, read, and speak these languages in a very short time (Hebrew in fifteen days, Syriac in seventeen days).18 The respected Zayd’s superior ability, his familiarity with Hebrew due to the Jewish tribes in Medina, and the fact that these two languages ​​come from the same root accelerated the learning process.

He was now responsible for writing, reading, and translating the correspondence with Jews and other interlocutors.19 In the following period, in addition to these two languages, the respected Zayd also learned Persian, Greek, Coptic, and Abyssinian and translated the letters in these languages to the Messenger of God.20

The close dialogue he established with people speaking these languages ​​in Medina had a great impact on his learning phase. ibn Umar reports that he knew Arabic and Hebrew in all their details. At this point, it can be said that it is a Prophetic practice, command, and recommendation for young people to learn the languages needed for the future of Islam.

Zayd ibn Thabit Wants To Be On the Front Lines

In addition to curiosity about the Qur’an and Sunnah, the respected Zayd ibn Thabit also had an advanced level of feeling, thought, and excitement to serve Islam. Even though he was only thirteen years old, when he heard that time to go to the front, he girded up his sword and took his place among the soldiers. The journey that resulted in the Battle of Badr was to be embarked on. Inspecting the army, the Messenger of God checked the rows one by one and turned away those under the age of fifteen. One of those he rejected that day was Zayd ibn Thabit.21 Because the Messenger of God did not want to put young people in danger until they were old enough to make good at the front, despite their wishes and excitement.

In Uhud, the respected Zayd took his place in the Army, but was again turned away due to his young age.22 He came to the battlefield only when the Meccans left Uhud; the Messenger of God sent him to investigate the latest situation of the respected Sa’d ibn Rabi and instructed him to convey his greetings if he was alive. Having lived his last moments, the respected Sa’d received his greetings from the respected Zayd and sent his greetings to the Messenger of God and the Muslims and a final message: “As long as there is someone breathing among you, if something happens to the Messenger of God, you will have no valid excuse in the sight of God.” 23

It was only possible for the respected Zayd ibn Thabit to be on the same front with the Messenger of God during the Battle of the Trench. Since he reached the age of fifteen, our Prophet allowed him to join the army and even gave him a dress made of Egyptian fabric.24 the respected Zayd carried soil while the ditch was being dug and fell asleep from working hard.25 Seeing the sincere effort of the respected Zayd while carrying soil, the Messenger of God said, “What a nice young man he is!”26 as a matter of appreciation and encouragement.

Complimenting young people in this and similar ways in response to the sacrifices they made and saying nice words to shape their behavior into their character was a different method that our Prophet applied when raising young people. The respected Zayd was also present in the siege of Qurayza following the Battle of the Trench, the conquest of Khaybar in Hudaybiyya, and the battle of Hunayn. The Messenger of God gave him the task of counting, writing down, calculating, and distributing the spoils and captives obtained in Khaybar and Hunayn.27

He was seventeen in Khayber and eighteen in Hunayn. His calculation ability or numerical intelligence brought him to the top in matters related to inheritance law, so much so that our Prophet said, “From my ummah, the one who knows the law of inheritance best is Zayd ibn Thabit!”28

His Knowledge of the Qur’an Makes Him Stand Out

One of the expeditions that the respected Zayd went on with the Messenger of God was to Tabuk. During the journey, his stepfather Umara was carrying the flag of the Banu Najjar. The Messenger of God took the standard from him and gave it to the respected Zayd. Thereupon the respected Umara said, “O Messenger of God! “Have you heard anything negative about me?” he asked; the Messenger of God explained the reason for this decision as follows: “No! Nothing about you! But the Qur’an is first and comes first. Zayd knows more Qur’an than you!”29

Our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, did a similar practice in Uhud while burying the martyrs; he requested that those who knew the Qur’an be buried first.30 He paid attention to the same issue when appointing an imam to the community and gave priority to the young man who knew the Qur’an best. Here, too, there was an encouragement and a compliment to young people who were more in touch with the Qur’an.

He Gives Due Credit To the Education He Received from Our Prophet

When the Messenger of God passed away, the respected Zayd was 21 years old. He was one of the most important figures that our Prophet raised and left behind. He would provide great services during the reign of the four caliphs. On the day the respected Abu Bakr was elected caliph, he addressed the Ansar and said, “The Messenger of God was one of the immigrants. Therefore, the imam must also be one of them. We must be the assistants of the Caliph from now on, just as we were the assistants of the Messenger of God.” By saying this, he performed the most critical mission in preserving the unity and solidarity of Muslims. With this historical address, the conflict was resolved, and the problem was solved so that the respected Abu Bakr was elected caliph by alliance. 31

He was one of the members of the Advisory Council, which was established for the purpose of state administration and solution of problems during the period of the respected Abu Bakr. 32 In addition, he continued his duty as mufti, which he started during the time of the Messenger of God, during the period of the respected Abu Bakr.33 He also worked as a “secretary” to the head of state because he learned many languages ​​under the guidance of the Messenger of God and his calligraphy was very good.34 The qualities that the Messenger of God provided him brought him to the very center of state and public affairs.

The greatest service he received during the period of the respected Abu Bakr was his chairmanship of the commission established to compile the Qur’an into a mushaf (a copy of the Qur’an). In the Battle of Yamama, seventy people who memorized the Qur’an, including Salim Mevla Abu Huzeyfe, were martyred. Upon this development, the respected Umar came to the caliph and informed him that the Qur’an, which was written on different materials and scattered during the time of the Messenger of God, should be collected between two covers before the other hafizes died. The Caliph appointed the respected Zayd ibn Thabit for this job.35

Because the respected Zayd was the chief revelation scribe of the Medina period, the one with the best writing among the companions, and was one of those who knew the entire Qur’an by heart while the Messenger of God was alive.36 Accepting this difficult task, the respected Zayd ibn Thabit immediately started working, compiled the Qur’an and collected it between two covers, and made one of the most important developments in the history of the Qur’an. He was only twenty-one years old at this time.

Zayd ibn Thabit was a person whom the respected Umar also valued very much. When he became caliph, he appointed him as judge of Medina.37 He continued his duty in the Fatwa Department and his membership in the Advisory Council, and even chaired this council during this period. The Caliph also consulted him about his private issues.38 After the Messenger of God and the respected Abu Bakr, he also served as the secretary of the respected Umar.39

the respected Umar said, “Whoever wants to ask/learn something about the faraiz (the obligatory deeds) should go to Zayd ibn Thabit!”40 and showed him to the public as an expert in terms of inheritance law. He also did not allow him to leave Medina by saying “People need Zayd ibn Thabit!” .41 In fact, if he were to leave Medina, he would leave Zayd as the “acting head of state” in his place.42 The Caliph also consulted him in financial matters, had him determine the values of the lands, and had him divide the property and distribute the spoils.43 Moreover, since he knew many languages, he was getting help in translation in diplomatic relations.

The respected Zayd ibn Thabit was thirty-three years old when Uthman was elected caliph. He was one of the respected Uthman’s most trusted bureaucrats. During his reign, the respected Zayd, while continuing his duty as a judge, also held positions such as the chairman of the Council and the Minister of Treasury…44 Moreover, when the respected Uthman left the capital for various reasons, such as pilgrimage, he left him as his deputy.45 He also gave him the chairmanship of the commission established to reproduce the copies of the Qur’an and send them to certain cities.46

He sided with the Caliph during the mischief related to the respected Uthman.47 On the day his house was surrounded and he was martyred, he came to the respected Uthman and informed him that three hundred Ansar were ready to intervene against the rebels. But the respected Uthman, who did not want a civil war to break out because of him, dissuaded him.48 The respected Zayd, who came out of the caliph’s house crying, made a speech to disperse the rebels waiting outside, but the bloodthirsty rebels were not convinced. Even though he declared that it was haram to shed the blood of the respected Uthman and asked the Ansar to protect him, he could not prevent them.49 When the respected Uthman was martyred, he cried all day long.

During the caliphate of the respected Ali, he served as the President of the Council until the capital was moved to Kufa; After that, he completely withdrew himself from state affairs. He preferred to remain neutral during the disorders (like in Jamal and Siffin) that took place during this period.50 The respected Zayd loves the respected Ali very much; he also respected him.51 When the Umayyad state was established and the capital was moved to Damascus, the respected Zayd was in Medina and remained there until his death. Governor Marwan ibn Hakem respected him and consulted him on matters related to the provisions.

He died in Medina at the age of 56 in the forty-fifth year of the Hicrah.52 When he passed away, Abu Hurayra said, “Today, the great scholar of the Ummah died…”53.

While his body was being placed in the grave, Abdullah ibn Abbas called out to those present and said, “If there is anyone among you who wants to know how knowledge was lost, come and look. This is how knowledge is lost. “I swear, a lot of knowledge was lost along with this funeral today.”54 he said. After performing his mother’s funeral prayer and burying him, he was about to mount his horse when Abdullah ibn Abbas came and held the stirrups. He said, “O son of the uncle of the Messenger of God! Stand back! There’s no need!” Even though he wanted to intervene, the respected Abdullah said, “No! This is how we serve our elders and scholars!” and continued to hold the stirrup.55

Zayd ibn Thabit Also Strives To Educate People

While the respected Zayd ibn Thabit was performing the great services mentioned above, he was also continuing to train students. He trained many young people from the Companions and the the Successors. For example, when Said ibn Musayyab, one of the famous and great scholars of the Successors, was asked from whom he received his knowledge, he answered Zayd ibn Thabit.56 Again, in order to express this truth, the respected Miswar ibn Mahram, one of the Companions, says: “The knowledge of the Companions was based on six people; these are Umar, Uthman, Ali, Muadh, Ubay and Zayd ibn Thabit!”57  

The great Tabiun scholar Mesruk also said: “I met with the companions of the Messenger of God. I saw that their knowledge was based on the following six people: Umar, Ali, Abdullah ibn Umar, Ebu’d-Dard, Ubay ibn Ka’b ve Zayd ibn Thabit!”58 He reached the highest level in science with the touches made by the Messenger of God at the right place and time. 59 He was a rare and monumental person, as expressed by the respected Umar’s “People need him!”

Conclusion

The Messenger of God recognized Zayd ibn Thabit’s potential on the first day of the Hijra and provided various guidance to nurture him into a valuable asset for the entire ummah. Initially, he assisted Zayd in acquiring literacy skills, appointing him as a revelation clerk. One objective was to keep him close and enhance his learning directly from our Prophet. Zayd was then directed to learn foreign languages spoken in the region, serving as both a translator and a clerk in international relations, further solidifying their proximity. Recognizing Zayd’s knowledge of the Qur’an, our Prophet highlighted him.60 Due to his intelligence, memory, and attention to detail, Zayd was tasked with account book work and received training in areas such as inheritance law, accounting, and budgeting.

It was akin to the Messenger of God planting a tree that grew, and its fruits were enjoyed by the caliphs and the entire ummah. Over forty years, Zayd lived and served as a key figure closest to the caliphs in state affairs, entrusted with crucial responsibilities in divan (court), budget, decree, fatwa, council, poetry, oratory, writing, and inheritance law, offering his expertise in every matter.61

Among the significant services Zayd provided during this period was the compilation of the Qur’an into a mushaf between two covers. In the era of the respected Uthman, he copied it into six copies and distributed them to central locations. The Messenger of God, having taken lessons from a polytheist captive and teaching Zayd to read and write, had prepared him for this momentous task. In fulfilling the Divine promise, “Indeed it is We, We Who send down the Reminder in parts, and it is indeed We Who are its Guardian,”62 God manifested His protection through the meticulous inscription carried out by Zayd’s hands.

Author: Yücel Men

Note: The respected Zayd’s personal life, servitude, family life, human relations, memorable memories and some important fatwas will be the subject of a separate article.

Footnotes

  1. Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/67; Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  2. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/217; Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 424; Ibn Hajar, Isaba 510; Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/70; Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  3. Balazuri, Futuhu’l-Buldan 1/17; Ibn Abi Hatim, Jarh and Ta’dil 7/228; Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi, Zadu’l-Ma’ad 1/178
  4. After the death of his father Thabit on the day of Buath, his mother Nawwar married Umara ibn Hazm, one of the notables of Ansar, and Umara was one of the seventy-five people who swore allegiance to the Messenger of God in Aqaba and invited him to Medina. Umara, who was closely interested in Zayd, was trying to raise him and did not hesitate to make sacrifices for this.
  5. Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 424; Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/67; Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  6. Ibn Hajar, Isaba 510; Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/72
  7. Ibn Hajar, Isaba 510
  8. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 1/173
  9. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 10/311
  10. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 1/263
  11. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/16
  12. Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 424; Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/67; Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  13. Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 424, 425
  14. One day, when he entered the presence of the Messenger of God with his pen in his hand, he said to him: “Put the pen on your ear! “This behavior is what helps the forgetting person the most to recover his memory.” See 1. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/218
  15. For example, in order to keep the respected Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, the young companion who became a Muslim in the early years of the Prophethood, close to him, he allocated a place for him and his mother next to the Prophet’s room after the migration. The two of them entered the house of the Messenger of God so often that the companions began to consider them from the Ahl al-Bayt (the household of the Messenger of God). Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, who made good use of this closeness, became one of the most learned and jurists of the Companions. During his travels, he took them with him and trained young people who were intelligent and had strong memories. Again, through his marriages, he paved the way for many talented young people (such as Abdullah ibn Abbas, Abdullah ibn Umar) to become closer to him and to grow up.
  16. Tirmidhi, Isti’zan 22; Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/281; Ibn Hajar, Isaba 510; Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubala 4/67, 68; Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  17. See Abu Dawud, Ilm 2
  18. Tirmidhi, Isti’zan 22; Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/281, 5/218; Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 424; Ibn Hajar, Isaba 510; Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/68; Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  19. Abu Dawud, Ilm 2; Tirmidhi, Isti’zan 22; Ibn Hajar, Isaba 510
  20. Mas’udi, At-Tanbih wa’l-Ishraf 246
  21. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/217
  22. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/217
  23. Hakim, Mustadrak 3/201; Ibn Hisham, Sira 395; Ibn Hajar, Isaba 555
  24. Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/70
  25. Thereupon, his stepfather took his sword to make jokes and when he woke up, the respected Zayd was very upset because he could not find his sword. The Messenger of God, who heard about the incident, asked who took the sword. When Umara said that she had taken their belongings, he forbade Muslims to be intimidated by taking their belongings, ‘whether for joke purposes or seriously’. See Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/219; Ibn Hajar, Isaba 510
  26. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/219; Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 424
  27. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/82, 118
  28. Sahih al-Bukhari, Manaqibu’l-Ansar 14, 16; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad 12904; Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/218; Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 424; Zahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  29. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/219; Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 424; Ibn Hajar, Isaba 510
  30. Ibn Hisham, Sire 396
  31. Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/70; Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  32. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/275
  33. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/275; Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/70
  34. Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 425
  35. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/220; Zahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  36. Zahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  37. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/219
  38. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/275
  39. Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 425
  40. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/281
  41. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/274
  42. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/221; Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 425; Zahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  43. Zahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  44. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 6/54; Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 425
  45. Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 425
  46. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/221; Zahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  47. Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 425
  48. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/222
  49. Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/71
  50. Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 425
  51. Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 425
  52. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/222; Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 424; Zahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  53. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/222; Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 425; Zahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  54. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/222; Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/73
  55. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/220; Ibn Hajar, Isaba 511
  56. See ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 7/90
  57. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/275
  58. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/275
  59. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 5/219, 220; Ibnu’l-Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba 425; Ibn Hajar, Isaba 510; Zahabi, Siyar A’lami’n-Nubalai 4/72
  60. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/271; Zahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  61. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat 2/274, 275; ibn Hajar, Isaba 511; Zahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam 2/408
  62. Hijr, 15:9.
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