Events That Occurred During Ramadan:The Last15 Days of Ramadan

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Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 16

Events that occurred during ramadan day 16; Our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) reached Bedir and deployed his troops.” (AH 2)

The Meccan army and the Muslims had come very close to each other, and the meeting place, Bedir, had been definitively determined. Therefore, it was necessary to go there as soon as possible and establish a camp. Our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), along with his Companions, arrived at Bedir and gave the order to halt. Hubab ibn Munzir was a young Companion. He thought that the chosen camping spot was not suitable. However, there was a situation that required giving due consideration to consultation and sharing experience, considering the time and place. Approaching the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), he asked:

“Is your choice of this location based on a revelation from God that does not allow for any alterations or delays, or is it a personal preference considering the circumstances of war?” Hubab ibn Munzir inquired.

On hearing this, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) responded, “On the contrary, it is a decision made considering the conditions of war,” he said. He then added:

“O Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him)! The place we are currently in is not suitable for warfare. It would be best to command the people, and we could go to the lower side near the well because I am familiar with this place and the wells here. There is a well with sweet and uninterrupted water. We could build a reservoir there to gather more water and meet our needs from here while closing the other wells.”

Given the atmosphere of war, this sincere offer seemed reasonable. Meanwhile, the Trustworthy Gabriel had also arrived, bringing the good news that Hubab’s proposal was accurate.

Upon hearing this, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “The correct course of action is as Hubab has indicated,” and he set out towards the described location, establishing the camp near the mentioned well.

In Bedir, a gentle rain with “sakina” (perfect calmness due to the Presence of God being made clear and apparent) descended. (AH 2)

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), along with his army, was encamped in Bedir. Meanwhile, in Bedir, a sweet rain had started, almost like a gentle promise of mercy before the upcoming victory. It was a sign of abundant mercy for the believers. Of course, the same rain affected the area where the opposing side was stationed. The difference was that they, due to the increasingly intense rain, had become miserable and were unable to move from the mud where they were stationed.

That evening, perfect calmness, called “sakina,” descended upon them. The Companions were engulfed in a sweet serenity, as if they had taken a bath of mercy, experiencing profound peace to their very core. Indeed, “sakina” was the name for such peace. They fell into such a sweet sleep that it seemed to erase all the hardships and fatigue they had experienced until then. It was clear that they needed to be refreshed for the next day, and God had bestowed this blessing upon them so that they could remain alert and not diminish their resistance by staying awake. Even in this state, the believers wanted to lean on their swords to stay awake, but they ended up falling asleep. Meanwhile, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had withdrawn to the tent where the honorable Sa’d ibn Muadh volunteered to stand guard throughout the night. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) fervently prayed for victory to be granted to the Muslims.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 17

“The duty of Prophethood was conveyed to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in Hira.” (The first year of Prophethood)

On the seventeenth day of the month of Ramadan, on a Monday morning, the most significant event in human history took place: the universal message of guidance and healing, the Qur’an, began to be revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). The trustworthy angel Gabriel’s first revelation was: “Read! In the Name of your Lord who created. Created man from a clinging substance. Read! And your Lord is the most Generous – Who taught by the pen – Taught man that which he knew not.” (Al-Alaq, 1-5). As the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was heading home after being entrusted with the mission of Prophethood, everything around him – the mountains, rocks, living and non-living beings – greeted him and said, “Peace be upon you, O Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him)!” When he returned home, his wife, the honorable Khadijah, confirmed his experience and became the first believer.

Ablution and prescribed Prayer were commanded, and the first Prayer was performed. (The first year of Prophethood)

While the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was on the upper part of Mecca, the trustworthy messenger Gabriel came again to teach about ablution and prescribed Prayer. He dug a spring with his foot at the edge of a valley. Gabriel performed ablution first from the water that gushed out. Meanwhile, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was observing Gabriel to learn how ablution was performed. Afterwards, he also performed ablution as shown by Gabriel. Then it was time for Prayer. First Gabriel prayed, followed by the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). After returning to their blessed home, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) taught ablution and Prayer to the honorable Khadijah for the first time. They prayed together. The honorable Khadijah, the first believer, attained the honor of being the first person to pray and the first congregation to pray.

The Battle of Badr, the first and most significant battle in Islamic history, occurred. (AH 2)

The Meccans, who set out to destroy the Muslims, did not respond positively to the Prophet’s (peace and blessings be upon him) calls to return. Consequently, the inevitable Battle of Badr took place between the two sides. The battle, which began in the early hours of the morning, lasted for a total of three hours. Despite being vastly outnumbered, the Islamic army engaged in a struggle for existence and, with the help of God, achieved the most significant victory in Islamic history. In this battle, where 14 Companions were martyred around seventy Meccans, including prominent figures like Abu Jahl, were rendered ineffective, and an equal number were taken as captives. After giving necessary tactics to the army, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him)withdrew to his tent and did not lift his head from prostration until the end of the battle, continuously praying to God for victory.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 18

The honorable Ali and the honorable Zayd ibn Haritha embraced Islam.” (The first year of Prophethood)

The sweet commotion in the Prophet’s household, the visits to and from Waraqa ibn Nawfal, and the honorable Khadija’s efforts indicated that something new was happening. The Prophet’s nephew, the honorable Ali, also noticed this change and activity immediately. With curious eyes, he watched them praying. At that time, he was only about ten years old. First, he asked:

What are you doing, and what is it to you? The Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) replied:

I am praying for the Lord of the Worlds.

The honorable Ali heard this for the first time and asked with full attention:

Who is the Lord of the Worlds?

The Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) gently sat him down on his knee and began to narrate what had happened to him in Hira and his appointment with the task of Prophethood. These were like the heart-wrenching admonitions of a compassionate father, directly appealing to the soul of the honorable Ali. He had so much trust in him that he would go anywhere, even to the point of death, without the slightest hesitation. However, in such an important matter, he should not decide without consulting his father. After all, the place of a father was different.

That night, the honorable Ali pondered deeply. In such an important matter as faith in God, what was the need to ask his parents? He had already made his decision. As soon as morning came, he went to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and declared his faith by reciting the Shahada. Thus, the honorable Ali became the first person to recite the Declaration of Faith after the honorable Khadija.

Not long after, another resident of this household, Zayd ibn Haritha, went to see his Master. He sensed that something new was happening, but he had not yet grasped its essence. The Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) and the honorable Khadija were praying together. After they finished their Prayers, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked Zayd what they had been doing. It was time; the Prophet took Zayd and, with the warmth of a compassionate father, explained to him what had happened. Then he recited some verses from the Qur’an to Zayd and invited him to embrace faith.

Would Zayd ever refuse a request from his Master? For him, setting aside living happily with his parents, he had become enamored with the Prophet’s state before revelation. Right then and there, he recited the declaration of faith from his heart and joined the caravan of believers after the honorable Khadija and the honorable Ali.

Abu Sufyan embraced Islam. (AH 8)

While encamped at Marru’z-Zahran, the Prophet and his conquering army ordered the soldiers to light fires. On that day, there were ten soldiers resting by each fire, a move intended to make the enemy estimate the number of Muslims at around 100,000. Indeed, when Abu Sufyan, who was observing the Islamic Army to gather information, saw the fires, he was frightened. Shortly after, he was captured along with Hakim ibn Hizam and Budayl ibn Warqa and brought to the Prophet’s tent. Despite not wanting any harm to befall him due to his past actions and having endeavored for years to win his heart, Abbas immediately granted him safety. In the headquarters tent, Abu Sufyan, upon being addressed by the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and invited to Islam, accepted his son-in-law’s offer and embraced Islam. The Prophet peace and blessings be upon him), desiring for faith to settle in his heart, announced that anyone entering his house would be safe to honor him. (AH 8)

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 19

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) peacefully conquered Mecca by winning over hearts. (AH 8)

During the second year of Hijra, the Master of Masters (peace and blessings be upon him) and his army, spending the 18th Ramadan at Marru’z-Zahran, set off towards Mecca on the 19th Ramadan, amid Abu Sufyan’s admiring glances, shortly after the Morning Prayer. Desiring to enter Mecca without shedding blood, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had been implementing various strategies for days, which had proven successful as the army had conquered the city without significant resistance.

The only concern of the Meccans was what Muhammed al-Amin (peace and blessings be upon him), whom they had expelled from his homeland, had in store for them. After all, they had expelled him from his homeland and had attempted to kill him and his Companions in battles. They had even martyred his beloved uncle, the honorable Hamza. Now, the power and authority were in the hands of the Master of Masters (peace and blessings be upon him). They wondered what punishment he would mete out to them, thinking they deserved it.

The Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) could have done whatever he wished to them, yet he pardoned them all by saying, “Go, you are all free!” Despite their past attempts on his life, he forgave them all. Witnessing and experiencing this, people’s hearts softened. That day, groups of people came to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) one after another and embraced Islam. It was as if their hearts were conquered.

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) watched this state of the people with gratitude to his Lord. On that day, he imparted extensive knowledge about Islam to the believers who were honored with Islam. The Meccans’ rush to embrace Islam continued for days.

The Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) also had good news for his Companions:

From this day forward, this place will not be besieged in the name of disbelief until the Day of Judgment!

After the conquest, many individuals who had spent their lives in enmity towards the Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) also found guidance. No one could have imagined that they too would come and embrace Islam. These individuals only desired to make amends for their past.

The Ka’ba was purified from idols and images, and the first call to Prayer was recited over the Ka’ba in Mecca. Addressing the people, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) declared that after the conquest of Mecca, the era of migration to Medina had ended in a special sense, and from now on, jihad and intention were paramount. In a revelation sent down that day, it was said, “The truth has come, and falsehood has vanished. Indeed, falsehood is bound to perish.”


Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 20

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) entered into seclusion (i’tikaf) for the first time. (AH 3)

I’tikaf, an act of worship that the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) never abandoned until the end of his life, is a strong Sunnah. The honorable Abu Huraira narrated: “The Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him)used to observe i’tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan every year. In the year he passed away, he observed i’tikaf for twenty days.” The honorable Enes explained this by saying: “The Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) used to observe i’tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan. However, he did not observe it for one year (because he was on an expedition), and the following year he observed i’tikaf for twenty days.”

The legitimacy of i’tikaf is established by the Qur’an and the Sunnah. In the Qur’an, it is stated: “And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques.” (Qur’an, 2:187) And the narration of the honorable Aisha “The Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) used to observe i’tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan. He continued this practice until his death. Then his wives observed i’tikaf after him,” serves as the legal evidence for i’tikaf.

A person observing i’tikaf dedicates all their time to worship and Prayer because even when not actively praying, they are in a state of readiness for Prayer within the mosque. This waiting is considered as worship. Through i’tikaf, one’s spirituality is elevated, the heart is illuminated, and one attains Divine blessings. I’tikaf not only distances a person from worldly distractions, allowing for more worship but also provides an opportunity for contemplation on the meaning of life in general. There are times when people need such deep contemplation. Entering i’tikaf, especially in the last ten days of Ramadan, holds particular significance as it provides an opportunity to observe Laylat al-Qadr (the Night of Decree). The honorable Aisha said, “The Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) would strive hard in worship during the last ten nights of Ramadan and stay awake at night, waking his family members for worship.” The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) observed i’tikaf in the last ten days of the years 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10 of the Hijri calendar.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 21

Addressing was made to the polytheists’ corpses. (AH 2)

It had been three days since the Battle of Badr. Before setting out on his journey, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) went to the place where the leaders of the disbelievers, who lay dead on the ground and whose relatives had fled without burying them at Badr, were. Despite being disbelievers, he had a respect for them as human beings created by the Creator. He had them all buried in a well and then addressed them as follows:

“O son of so and so! O Abu Jahl ibn Hisham! O Utbah ibn Rabi’ah! O Shaybah ibn Rabi’ah! O Umayyah ibn Khalaf! Have you now realized what it means to disobey your Lord and that what your Lord has promised you is true? Indeed, I have witnessed firsthand that what my Lord has promised me is true! No prophet has been harmed as much as I have been harmed by his people. While others embraced me, you rejected me. While they supported me, you declared war against me. And God has punished you severely for all that you did to me. Yet, you used to confidently call me a liar!”

Witnessing these words of the Prophet(peace and blessings be upon him), the honorable Omar intervened and asked:

“O Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him)! You are addressing them three days later; how do you speak to them, expecting them to respond, with lifeless and decaying bodies? How can they hear you and respond to you?”

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) replied:

“You hear not what I say to them better than they do. For they now hear everything I say to them, but they are unable to respond.”

The captives were treated kindly.

The journey from Bedir to Medina was about to begin. The Companions had 70 captives in their possession. The road was long, the weather was hot, and there were few mounts. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) turned to his soldiers and advised, “Treat the captives kindly!” He wanted to win the hearts of these people who had come to destroy him all the way to Bedir. His advice was a command for the Companions. Upon this, the Companions dismounted and put the captives on their horses. The captives were walking while the Companions were traveling on horseback. They removed their own clothes and dressed the captives with them.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 22

The situation of the captives from the Battle of Badr was discussed, and the spoils of war from Badr were distributed. (AH 2)

It was the first time that the issue of captives arose, and there was no precedent to guide them on what to do. There had been no Divine command yet. They couldn’t just release the captives without a ruling, as that would effectively aid the Quraysh forces, who would undoubtedly resume preparations for war upon their return. Therefore, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) first gathered his Companions and began consulting with them on the steps to be taken regarding the captives.

As a result of the consultation, a general consensus emerged. The verses revealed until that day emphasized forgiveness and extending invitations with wisdom and good advice. Forgiving everyone had become characteristic of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), and he, in accordance with the consensus, advocated for the captives to be released in exchange for ransom. The ransom amount was set at four thousand dirhams on that day. Nevertheless, a flexible approach was adopted, and those unable to pay the full amount were treated leniently, and the ransom could be reduced for them.

There were also poor individuals who had nothing to offer; their hearts desired their freedom as well, and a solution was soon found for them too. Those who lacked the means to pay the ransom would be required to teach ten Muslim youths how to read and write, in exchange for their freedom.

However, those who had neither wealth nor the ability to teach would not be abandoned. They would also be released on the condition that they refrain from speaking against Islam thereafter and refrain from aiding those who opposed it.

The honorable Hasan’s aqiqah sacrifice was performed. (AH 3)

A child is a cherished blessing bestowed upon parents, the apple of their eye, and the joy of their hearts. The sacrifice offered in gratitude for this blessing is called aqiqah. It is one of the practices of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). It is virtuous to perform it on the seventh day after birth. Following the sacrifice, it is also a tradition of the Prophet (peace and

blessings be upon him) to shave the child’s head and offer charity equivalent to the weight of the hair in gold or silver. It is also recommended to give the child its name on this day. All of these are expressed in a hadith as follows: “Every child is a pledge for the akika sacrifice to be offered on its behalf on the seventh day after birth. After the akika sacrifice is performed, the child’s head is shaved, and it is given a name.” On the seventh day after birth, God’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) arranged for an aqiqah to be offered for the honorable Hasan.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 23

The daughter of our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), the honorable Ruqayya, passed away.

After migrating to Medina, sixteen months had passed. Everything was going well when the honorable Rukayya fell ill with measles. Her condition worsened over time. At that time, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), who was preparing to control the Quraysh caravan, ordered the honorable Osman and Usama Ibn Zayd to stay in Medina to take care of her after visiting his daughter.

As her illness worsened, our mother passed away at the age of 22 while her father was returning from Badr. Throughout her illness, Umm Ayman, who never left her side like the honorable Fatimah, washed and shrouded the honorable Ruqayyah when she closed her eyes to this world. Her Funeral Prayer was led by her husband, the honorable Osman, who then took her to the Baqi Cemetery, placed her in the grave with care, and tearfully bid her farewell to her eternal resting place.

As earth was being thrown over the honorable Ruqayyah, Zayd Ibn Harithah was bringing the news of the victory of the Battle of Badr to the people of Medina. Unable to see her mother, the honorable Khadijah, when she passed away in Abyssinia, the honorable Ruqayyah could not see her father at her own funeral either. As a young lady of the blessed household, she had lived the trials of the world for the sake of faith, represented Islam in foreign lands, conveyed the revelation, and paid serious prices. Now, she was quietly bidding farewell to the world…

Upon receiving the news of his daughter’s death shortly after the Battle of Badr, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) was deeply saddened. He visited her grave, prayed with sorrow at her bedside, and shed tears. Expressing his satisfaction with his daughter’s character and experiences to the Companions who came to offer condolences, he said, “Praise be to God! My daughter lived the best life and was buried in the best manner,” and prayed for her well-being.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 24

The honorable Halid ibn al-Walid destroyed the idol named Uzza in Batn Nahla. (AH 8)

The Quraysh polytheists had erected three hundred and sixty idols around the Ka’ba. These idols were firmly fixed in place with lead. Our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), who preached the belief in the oneness of God and with the light of his message brought thousands of people to revolve like moths around that light, now began to cleanse the Ka’ba, which had been originally built in accordance with the belief in monotheism, of idols.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), while cleansing the Ka’ba and Mecca of idols, also wanted to destroy the idols around the city. For this purpose, he sent the honorable

Khalid ibn al-Walid with a thirty-person unit to Nahle to destroy and dismantle the Uzza idol. The honorable Khalid, in accordance with the order, went and destroyed the Uzza idol, which was considered the greatest idol by the Quraysh.

During these days, the Sultan of Messengers (peace and blessings be upon him) also commanded some of his Companions to go and destroy certain major idols. Sad ibn Zayd was assigned to destroy Manat, while Khalid ibn Sad, Urana, and Hisham ibn As were sent to Yalamlam for a similar task.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 25

The Jahsh family embraced Islam. (The first year of Prophethood)

Jahsh arrived in Mecca later and settled with the permission of Abdul-Muttalib, the grandfather of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). Abdul-Muttalib also married him to his daughter, Umeyme, who was the Prophet’s aunt. After the advent of the Prophethood, the Jahsh family became among the first Muslims to collectively accept the invitation of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). The family consisted of five members on that day: Abdullah, Ubaydullah, Abu Amr, Zaynab, and Hamna. This respectable family, included prominent individuals, to whom Abu Sufyan gave his two daughters. One of whom, named Umm Habiba, was married to Ubaydullah ibn Jahsh. Despite the pressures and persecutions during the years of hardship, the family remained steadfast in their faith and were among those who migrated collectively.

Ubaydullah ibn Jahsh, upon moving to the land of Abyssinia to practice his religion, faced difficulties in finding sustenance, leading him to abandon Islam and pass away in that state. In response, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) sought to establish kinship ties with the leader of Mecca, Abu Sufyan, and soften his stance towards Islam by proposing marriage to his daughter Umm Habiba through Negus. When the proposal was accepted, Umm Habiba attained the status of the mother of the believers.

Upon the remaining members of the family migrating to Medina, a group of Meccans, including Abu Jahl, seized their homes and belongings. In consolation, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) gave glad tidings to Abdullah ibn Jahsh of the bounties of Paradise and advised him not to be saddened by the loss.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 26

The incident of the slander fabricated by the hypocrites came to an end. (AH 5)

The return journey from the Mustaliq campaign was underway. It went unnoticed that the honorable Aisha, our mother, had left her howdah to attend to a personal need. After the army had departed, Safwan ibn Muattal, who was responsible for checking the area, conducted a final inspection and found the honorable Aisha still at the resting place. He then escorted her to catch up with the caravan. However, upon their return to Medina, the hypocrites distorted and exaggerated the

incident, turning it into a slanderous campaign against the pure reputation of the Prophet’s noble household.

Upon returning from the campaign, the month of Ramadan had already begun. The honorable Aisha, feeling unwell due to the journey’s exhaustion and change in environment, was confined to her bed. Unaware of the events that had transpired, she struggled with her illness while also trying to observe the blessings of Ramadan. Meanwhile, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) patiently awaited the most opportune moment to intervene in the situation. More than twenty days had passed since the incident when he delivered a sermon, addressing the people: “O people! What has happened to some individuals that they are causing distress to my family? They are uttering inappropriate and false words against my family. Moreover, I know nothing about them except goodness. As for the man who is being slandered, I know nothing about him except goodness. He has never entered any of my houses without me.” When he sought the opinions of those who were well-acquainted with both sides of the matter, their consensus was unanimous: this was a blatant slander against pure integrity!

The honorable Aisha, upon hearing about the slander, was deeply distressed. Her tears had dried up from crying so much. It was the twenty-sixth day of Ramadan when the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), to discuss the matter, came to her. Everyone had said what they needed to say. They had reached the point where words were exhausted. They were now only supplicating and praying fervently. The prayers had become abundant. Though they did not know how long they would have to wait, they knew that waiting for relief was also a virtuous act. However, before the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) could rise from his place, revelation began to descend upon him.

When the revelation was complete, a sweet smile appeared on the face of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). Turning to our mother, he immediately said, “Congratulations, O Aisha! Praise be to God. He has informed me through revelation that you are indeed innocent.” Now, everyone’s faces were beaming. The deep sorrows in Abu Bakr’s family had turned into great joy. A family that had been shedding tears of sadness for a month was now shedding tears of joy. It was not just anyone but God who affirmed the chastity of their daughter: “Indeed, those who came with falsehood are a group among you. Do not think it bad for you; rather, it is good for you. For every person among them is what [punishment] he has earned from the sin. And he who took upon himself the greater portion thereof – for him is a great punishment.” (Surah An-Nur, 24:11)

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 27

The final inspection of the Qur’an by the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) with Gabriel occurred (AH 10).

The trustworthy messenger of revelation, Gabriel, would come every Ramadan night and recite the verses of the Qur’an revealed up to that day in their entirety. Then, the Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) would appear before the people in the Prophet’s Mosque and recite from the beginning to the end all the verses revealed up to that point, listening to them from his Companions who had memorized the Qur’an. Thus, both the memories and the written copies of the scribes would be thoroughly checked. This event of review occurred twice, from beginning to end, during the last year and last Ramadan of the Prophet’s life, which is referred to as “the final review.” Abdullah ibn Mas’ud and Zayd ibn Thabit were among the Companions present during these checks. The review played a significant role in preserving the Qur’an in its original form along with memorization and writing skills. During the caliphate of the honorable Abu Bakr, in the

efforts to compile the Qur’an, the two written copies that underwent scrutiny during the final review were considered as the basis.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 28

The obligation of Zakat al-Fitr was established. (AH 2)

Zakat al-Fitr, also known as Fitrana, is the obligatory charity that financially capable Muslims must pay on behalf of all family members during the month of Ramadan. It is considered an important spiritual gain for Muslims as an expression of gratitude for benefiting from the blessings of Ramadan.

The command to pay Zakat al-Fitr came on the 28th day of Ramadan, two days before the first Eid al-Fitr, in the second year after the Hijra, following the obligation of fasting in Ramadan. The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), in a hadith, instructed that Zakat al-Fitr should be given on behalf of every Muslim, whether free or enslaved, male or female (Muslim, Zakat 12). Based on this hadith, the Shafi’i, Maliki, and Hanbali schools of thought consider Zakat al-Fitr to be obligatory, while the Hanafi school considers it to be a duty. However, there is no difference in obligation between a duty and an obligation.

Zakat al-Fitr is paid on behalf of every member of the family. In terms of obligation, each woman is responsible for her own Zakat al-Fitr, and each man is responsible for his own. However, there is no problem if they pay on behalf of each other. As for children, if they have their own wealth, they should pay from it; otherwise, their guardians should pay from their own wealth.

Zakat al-Fitr serves as a significant institution of social solidarity. While poor people experience the joy of sharing with those around them, those who give also experience a similar joy. Indeed, there is great pleasure in giving for those who realize its significance.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 29

Amr ibn Abbas embraced Islam. (The first year of Prophethood)

Amr ibn Abas was inclined towards the Islamic faith by nature. At a time when everyone worshipped idols, he detested idols and believed that there could not be more than one Creator. He considered worshipping idols, which could neither benefit nor harm, to be meaningless. Amr was searching for a religion to fill the void within him. One day, he encountered a person from the People of the Book and expressed his view that worshipping stones and trees was foolishness. He requested assistance, saying, “I consider it foolishness to worship something incapable of causing benefit or harm. If you know of something better, please help me.” The person was a knowledgeable scholar who knew that the final prophet would soon emerge. He advised Amr, saying, “A man will emerge in Mecca who will turn away from the idols worshipped by his people and invite them to believe in the one God, who has no partners. If you reach him, follow him, for he will bring the superior religion.”

Amr eagerly awaited this new religion. Every day he inquired and searched to see if such a person had emerged. Days passed in this manner, and his longing only grew stronger. Finally, one day he received the awaited news. A traveler from Mecca informed him that a man had emerged there,

turning away from idols and inviting people to believe in the one, unique God. Amr’s heart filled with excitement, and he immediately set out on the journey.

When Amr arrived in Mecca, he learned that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had not yet openly begun his call to Islam. He searched for him until evening but could not find him. As it was nightfall, he stopped searching and sadly fell asleep at the base of the Ka’ba’s wall.

God rewarded his sincerity in seeking the truth. While he slept, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) approached him, reciting the declaration of faith aloud. Amr heard the voice and woke up. His heart was pounding with excitement. He got up and walked towards the direction of the voice. As he approached, he asked, “Who are you?” The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) replied, “I am the Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him) .” Right then and there, Amr uttered the declaration of faith, thus earning the honor of being one of the first Muslims. It is narrated that Amr was the fourth or fifth person to accept Islam.

Events That Occurred During Ramadan: Day 30

Events that occurred during ramadan last day; Abu Dharr al-Ghifari embraced Islam. (The first year of Prophethood)

He belonged to the Ghifar tribe and lived along the trade route near Mecca. Renowned for his courage, strength, and valor, he was well-known in the region.

The light of Islam began to illuminate the world, and news of its emergence spread throughout the surroundings, while the polytheists sought ways to impede its progress. Eventually, this news reached the land of the Ghifar tribe. Upon hearing the news, Abu Dharr immediately set out for Mecca.

Upon arriving in Mecca, he did not disclose his purpose to anyone, as he did not know anyone there. Without asking anyone, he made his way to the Ka’ba and sat down, hoping for an opportunity to see the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and searching for a sign to locate him. During this time, he only consumed water from Zamzam.

In the late afternoon, he found refuge in a corner of a street. The honorable Ali noticed Abu Dharr and, recognizing that he seemed lost, took him to his home and cared for him. Upon learning that Abu Dharr had come here to seek the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), the honorable Ali brought him to the presence of the Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him). After meeting with the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), Abu Dharr realized that the dawn he had been waiting for years had arrived, and without hesitation, he embraced Islam

Our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) married the honorable Sawda. (The first year of Prophethood)

Losing the honorable Khadijah was a great sorrow for the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), which was evident by the deep grief he experienced. This state of grief lasted for a long time. The Companions sympathized with him and tried to console him as much as they could.

Despite this sorrow, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) continued to carry out the challenging responsibility of propagating Islam with great effort. He also took care of his household, including his daughters who were then around 16 years old. Seeing the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in distress, the Companions rushed to his aid, trying to lighten his burden and comfort his heart to some extent.

One of those who came to the Prophet’s aid and helped with household chores and the care of his daughters was Hawla bint Hakim, the wife of Uthman ibn Mazun. Hawla often visited the Prophet’s house and one day, she requested permission to enter. After exchanging greetings and inquiring about his well-being, she was deeply saddened to see the Prophet’s sorrowful and weary state. She began to think of a solution to alleviate his sadness and lighten his heart. The only solution that came to her mind was to recommend a righteous woman who could assist him and his daughters. She suggested Sawda bint Zam’a, a widow, to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). God’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) approved of this marriage, and the marriage was solemnized.

The honorable Sevde, a very naive and playful lady, brought some relief to the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) and his daughters, who were overwhelmed by grief, distress, and pressure, like a gentle breeze in their hearts. Of course, it was difficult to replace the honorable Hatice, who was at the pinnacle of perfection. Besides, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) did not expect such a replacement from her. His desire was probably to alleviate the increasing burden of pressure and oppression day by day. His expectation from his marriage partner was to provide support to himself and his family, manage the household, and not lose focus on her home and children during the Islamic call.

The honorable Sawda endeavored to fulfill this role during the last three years of the Meccan period. She took care of the Prophet’s home and became a close friend to his daughters. This marriage of the honorable Sawda gave the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and his daughters some breathing space.

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