The Life of the Prophet in Chronological Order
-The birth of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (June 17, Monday). Another possible date is April 20, 571.
-He was given to Halima to be suckled and weaned.
-Halima brought him back to Mecca to his mother, Amina.
-Amina died. Abdulmuttalib, his grandfather, assumed custody.
-Abdulmuttalib died. His uncle Abu Talib became his guardian.
-First trip to Syria with Abu Talib.
-Took oath for Hilf al-Fudul (Pact of Excellence).
-He led Khadija’s trade caravan to Busra.
-Marriage with Khadija.
-Arbitration between different clans in the crisis of restoring the Black Stone to the Ka’ba.
-The first revelation in the cave of Hira in the month of Ramadan (the first five verses of chapter Alaq).
-First public call to Islam. He invited his nearest of kin to the faith.
-Pagans of Mecca started torturing weak Muslims.
-First emigration in Islam. Some Companions set off to Abyssinia.
-Second emigration to Abyssinia.
-Hamza and Umar embraced Islam
-Pagans started a social and economic boycott to the clan of the Prophet
-The year of sadness. Khadija and Abu Talib died.
-Visited Ta’if to teach Islam.
-A group of pilgrims from Medina (then Yathrib) met the Prophet and embraced Islam.
-The miracle of the Ascension (Miraj) and the prescribed daily prayers commanded.
-First Aqabah Pledge with a group from Medina and the assignation
of Mus’ab ibn Umayr by the Prophet to teach Islam there.
-Second Aqabah Pledge.
-Muslims started emigration to Medina.
-Meccan leaders plotted to murder the Prophet.
-The Prophet emigrated to Medina with Abu Bakr.
-The building of Masjid al-Nabawi (the Prophet’s Mosque) started.
-Adhan, call to prayer, introduced.
-Brotherhood established between the Emigrants and Helpers (muahat).
-The Medina Contract drawn and the borders of the city determined.
-A marketplace established in the city.
-Direction of prayer changed from Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem to Ka’ba in Mecca.
-Obligatory fasting in Ramadan started.
-The Battle of Badr.
-Marriage with Aisha.
-Ali married Fatima, the Prophet’s daughter.
-Festivities of Ramadan and sacrifice observed for the first time.
-Prescribed alms commanded.
-The Battle of Uhud.
-Census in Medina.
-The Battle of the Trench.
-Hudaybiya Peace Treaty and the revelation of the chapter Fath
-Letters sent to emperors of the Byzantium and Sasanid Empires, as
well as to the rulers of other neighboring countries.
-Ashama, the Negus (king) of Abyssinia, embraced Islam.
-Expedition to Haybar.
-Zainab bint Harith attempted to poison the Prophet.
-Khalid b. Walid, Amr b. As, and Uthman b. Talha embraced Islam.
-The Battle of Mu’tah.
-Hudaybiya Peace Treaty violated by Meccan pagans.
-The conquest of Mecca.
-The Battle of Hunayn.
-Funeral for Ashama observed by the Prophet in absentia.
The Life of the Prophet in Chronological Order 363
-The Battle of Tabuk.
-A second letter of invitation to Islam sent to Heraclius, the emperor
-Ka’b b. Zuhayr (the poet of Ode to the Mantle) embraced Islam.
The Prophet gave his mantle as a gift to him.
-Death of Abdullah bin Ubayy, a prominent hypocrite.
-The hajj, major pilgrimage, commanded.
-A committee of Christians from Najran visited the Prophet.
-The Prophet took a twenty-day spiritual retreat in Ramadan and
recited the Qur’an twice with Gabriel.
-Musaylima, the liar, asserted a self-claimed prophethood.
-The farewell pilgrimage and sermon.
-The Prophet died, Monday, June 8 (Rabi al-awwal 13).