The Life of the Messenger of God in Chronological Order

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Mecca Period


-The birth of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) (June 17, Monday). Another possible date is April 20, 571.

-He was given to Halima to be suckled and weaned.


-Halima brought him back to Mecca to his mother, Amina.


-Amina died. Abdul Muttalib, his grandfather, assumed custody.


-Abdul Muttalib died. His uncle Abu Talib became his guardian.


-First trip to Syria with Abu Talib.

589 (?)

-Took oath for Hilf al-Fudul (Pact of Excellence).


-He led Khadija’s trade caravan to Busra.

-Marriage with Khadijah.


-Arbitration between different clans in the crisis of restoring the Black Stone to the Ka’ba.


-The first revelation in the cave of Hira in the month of Ramadan (the first five verses of chapter al-Alaq).


-First public call to Islam. He invited his nearest of kin to the faith.


-Pagans of Mecca started torturing weak Muslims.


-First emigration in Islam. Some Companions set off to Abyssinia.


-Second emigration to Abyssinia.

-Hamza and Umar embraced Islam

-Pagans started a social and economic boycott to the clan of the Prophet


-Boycott ended.


-The year of sadness. Khadija and Abu Talib died.

-Visited Ta’if to teach Islam.

-A group of pilgrims from Medina (then Yathrib) met the Prophet and embraced Islam.


-The miracle of the Ascension (Miraj) and the prescribed daily prayers commanded.

-First Aqabah Pledge with a group from Medina and the assignation of Mus’ab ibn Umayr by the Prophet to teach Islam there.


-Second Aqabah Pledge.

Medina Period


-Muslims started emigration to Medina.

-Meccan leaders plotted to murder the Prophet.

-The Prophet emigrated to Medina with Abu Bakr.

-The building of Masjid al-Nabawi (the Prophet’s Mosque) started.

-Adhan, call to prayer, introduced.


-Brotherhood established between the Emigrants and Helpers (muahat).

-The Medina Contract drawn and the borders of the city determined.

-A marketplace established in the city.


-Direction of prayer changed from Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem to Ka’ba in Mecca.

-Obligatory fasting in Ramadan started.

-The Battle of Badr.

-Marriage with Aisha.

-Ali married Fatima, the Prophet’s daughter.

-Festivities of Ramadan and sacrifice observed for the first time.

-Prescribed alms (the Zakah) commanded.


-The Battle of Uhud.

-Alcohol forbidden.


-Census in Medina.

-The Battle of the Trench.


-Hudaybiya Peace Treaty and the revelation of the chapter al-Fath


-Letters sent to emperors of the Byzantium and Sassanian Empires, as well as to the rulers of other neighboring countries.

-Ashama, the Negus (king) of Abyssinia, embraced Islam.

-Expedition to Khaybar.

-Zainab bint Harith attempted to poison the Prophet.


-Khalid ibn al-Walid, Amr ibn As, and Uthman ibn Talha embraced Islam.

-The Battle of Mu’tah.

-Hudaybiya Peace Treaty violated by Meccan pagans.


-The conquest of Mecca.

-The Battle of Hunayn.

-Funeral for Ashama observed by the Prophet in absentia.

The Life of the Prophet in Chronological Order 363

-The Battle of Tabuk.

-A second letter of invitation to Islam sent to Heraclius, the emperor of Byzantium.

-Ka’b ibn Zuhayr (the poet of Ode to the Mantle) embraced Islam.

The Prophet gave his mantle as a gift to him.


-Death of Abdullah ibn Ubay, a prominent hypocrite.

-The Haj, major pilgrimage, commanded.

-A committee of Christians from Najran visited the Prophet.

-The Prophet took a twenty-day spiritual retreat in Ramadan and recited the Qur’an twice with Gabriel.

-Musaylima, the liar, asserted a self-claimed Prophethood.


-The Farewell Pilgrimage and sermon.

-The Messenger of God passed away, Monday, June 8 (Rabi al-Awwal 13).

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